Most golf course architects use a herringbone pattern of 4-inch perforated drains throughout the bunker. These patterns are similar to those in greens. Placement should be perpendicular to the flow, and spacing should allow water to keep a maximum flow to reach a pipe no more than 10 to 15 feet away.
How do golf courses drain water?
There are two basic ways an architect can get water to go where it needs to go: with the slopes of the land, or through manmade drainage systems. In a perfect world, golf courses would use only surface drainage, in which the land moves water off the playing surfaces and into streams and other basins.
What sand is used in golf bunkers?
While silica sand is generally preferred over calcareous sands due to its resistance to chemical weathering, many golf courses have been using calcareous sands successfully in bunkers for many years.
How fast do golf courses drain?
According to Ramsay, they are roughly halfway through a 10-year drainage-overhaul process. “Each hole takes between 10 and 14 days,” he says, adding cost varies significantly. “At Yale Golf Club, it is between $10,000 and $80,000 per hole, depending on the severity of the issues.”
What is a French drain on golf course?
The most common supplemental drainage used on golf courses is the French drain. French drains consist of a series of trenches containing perforated drain pipes encased in gravel. The pipes typically drain to an adjacent pond or catch basin.
How does rope drainage work?
It is made of highly conductive fiberglass, in which the spaces between the fibers match the pore sizes of a sandy root zone. The result is a system that drains fast with passive gravity drainage and wicks away excess soil moisture with capillary suction throughout the day.
How often should bunkers be raked?
Bunkers always have been considered more expensive to maintain than turf, although in the old days, raking them three times a week versus mowing rough three times a week shouldn’t have cost substantially more. Nowadays, higher bunker standards require daily hand-raking and edging and weekly leaf/clipping blowing.
How deep should the sand be in a golf bunker?
Newly renovated bunkers typically require 75mm to 100mm of sand to give protection for the high handicappers and to sustain an amount of play in between routine maintenance procedures.
What is herringbone drainage?
The Herringbone system is the design for the main central pipe. The pipe runs down a slope and, at acute angles, with numerous lateral pipes connecting to it. … This is a form of drainage design that is suitable for bowling greens, football pitches and other areas that boast a regular shape.
What is a drainage interceptor?
Drain interceptors or drain separators are seen as the final line of drainage defence. They are designed to stop contaminants from commercial and industrial sites (such as production facilities, storage areas and even car parks) from creating a pollution hazard.
What soil is best for golf courses?
The best sand fraction by far for golf green construction is the medium fraction and good sands for developing golf greens should be high in medium sand, preferably 50% or greater. Of course the coarser the sand, the higher the infiltration rate and the finer the sand the lower the infiltration rate.